Semiotics- The study of signs. “ Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign" (Eco:1976:7 in Chandler D, 2002:2)
Genre- in a study of media texts it is used to divide texts into easily identifiable categories. It is a way of classifying media products according to the elements that they share. “..”
Stereotype- A ‘typical’ image with exaggerate features that appears so many times that becomes convention. This representation of characters can be positive but it also simplified and judgmental.
Form- The structure and style of a text. ".."
Encoder- Source through which meanings are made ".."
Denotation- A literal link between the sign and its referent. ".."
Connotation- Adds value to the denotative sign by offering additional meanings. ".."
Preferred reading- Dominant meaning intended by the encoder. ".."
Ideology- A system of ideas/ beliefs and myths.
Dominant Ideology- A selective and partial view of a 'hegemonic' group in society. ".."
Text- A message ".. in a form that is physically independent from its sender or receiver" (Chandler 2002:2)
Textual Analysis- The process of accessing meaning within a text. ".."
Langue- Language- rules of sign systems (grammer)
Parole- Speech, articulation of signs - Speech or writing.
Polysemic- Multiple meanings to which the decoder contributes
Conventions- Both the cultural and social dimensions of a sign depends upon a shared culture
Formalist filmmakers- see the screen like artist's canvas, and create a world within its frame using their own rules
Realist filmmakers- However work as if they look out of a window that frames a small part of a larger world.
Mise-en-scene- This French phrase literally means ‘ Put-in-the-scene’ and refers to everything that can be seen in the shot including characters, lighting, iconography. “...”
Tracking/ reverse-tracking shot- The movement of the camera using a dolly or steadicam to allow it to smoothly followed a character or action. In reverse track the camera moves backwards and the character/ action moves smoothly towards the audience. “...”
Diegetic sound- This refers to natural sound that is part of the Mise-en-scene or ‘Sound you can see’. “An explosive sound as a gun is fired”.
Non-Diegetic sound- Sound super imposed upon the Mise-en-scene or ‘Sound you can’t see’. “Music to establish a mood”.
Tzvetan Todorov- He suggests that the primary function of the narrative was to solve a problem and that Characters pass through a series of stages of linear narrative where events follow in chronological order. “...”
Roland Barthes- (1915-80) was a writer who continues to influence the study of the ways in which meanings are produced by text through signs and code systems (semiotics).
Vladimir Propp- (1895-1970) researched the roles of characters in folklore and fairy stories. He wrote an influential book ‘The morphology of the folktale(1928)’ which sets out this findings. This has been applied to media texts to discuss the important function of character in narrative.
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